There are several quotes and memes circulating social media about the effectiveness of government. One quote I saw recently is attributed to Ronald Reagan – “We should measure welfare’s success by how many people leave welfare, not by how many people are added.” This got me thinking, not about welfare or politics, but why it is so difficult to accurately track and monitor the effectiveness of government programs. There are numerous metrics on program budget and enrollment but it is very difficult to identify what drives the changes in these metrics. Is it the economy? Is it changes in policy? Is it due to the efficiency (or inefficiency) of the government itself?